bakun existing cultural practices

i have noticed that most of the visits i get come from search fields containing "bakun, benguet" or "the legend of duligen". in consideration of these persistent queries, and in honor of the place and the people in bakun, allow me to share what i have learned about the existing cultural practices during my visits there, since 2005.

there are traditional beliefs in the community of bakun which still have a great bearing on the actions of the members in relating to others. similar to what we know of the general filipino psyche on concepts such as "hiya", "galang", or "lalim", or "maykapal", the traditional beliefs in bakun also relate to an individual's perception of the self, others, and the world. PANIYEW is a belief on fear for what is not seen but known creator. INAYAN is about the fear for someone one can see and perceive. BA~IN is similar to the concept of HIYA or shame. TA~AN is known to be a belief about respect for mankind.

there is also a traditional form of labor exchange in farming in bakun which is called ALLUYON, also known in tagalog or filipino as BAYANIHAN. other practices in agriculture in bakun include: DENNET DELOS DI NEM~A/PAYEW where a chicken is offered as part of a belief that it will bless the rice after planting. likewise, for a good harvest, smoked pork and rice are offered during the harvest season. EPAS is another traditional practice where a small piglet is offered to be cooked and eaten by the family when a granary is first opened to provide blessing for a bountiful storage.

as concerns practices associated with courtship and marriage: TOMOK is a courtship ritual which seeks to obtain the parents' or guardians' consent; KAON is the actual marriage ceremony in which no sexual contact is allowed, where in relation to this SILIB is scheduled by the elders where the couple will sleep in separate beds; after the SILIB, a pig and local wine, tapey, will be offered as TETEG for one day ngilin then the couple can live as one; TOLTOLO or three pigs feast, at a time when the couple has already established themselves and could produce what they needed; and MAN~SIDA or a one week ngilin where an odd number (5, 7, 9 or 11) of pigs will be butchered as offerings.

on practices during pregnancy and birth: DADAWAK, where a pig will be butchered, and believed to hasten and make the delivery of the baby safe; ANAWANG where a chicken will be butchered, also to make a safe delivery; MAKSEL, or a welcome ritual for the baby where a bolo and agaldang and a chicken will be used to ensure that the child learns to speak early; and ABOSANG KINI~ING, a stew served to the mother and believed to enhance breastmilk production, done after birth and also believed to stop the mother's bleeding.

on rituals and practices associated with death: LAWIT where pigs or chickens are offered to guide the dead home; PAMAKAN or LEGADO where a chicken is offered to dead soldiers or a group of dead people as perceived in a dream or of bad health; LOBON where a pig and blanket are offered to dead parents as a substitute to AGAMID, a ritual to end the NGILIN (or mourning period) where pigs or carabaos are butchered depending on the family status. (source: municipal annual report and pakikipagkwentuhan)

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